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Table of contents
- Paisagens da China e do Japão by Wenceslau de Morais
- Paisagens da China e do Japão
- Top Authors
- Moraes, Wenceslau de 1854-1929
Paisagens da China e do Japão by Wenceslau de Morais
In one of these letters he states never having met Canto e Castro, then President of the Portuguese Republic: I think that when I arrived at Macao he was just leaving. Whom I did frequently see in Macao was a mestizo girl her father was Dutch who was called 'Canto e Castro's bride'. If I am not mistaken, he used to be called 'The Magnificent'. Morais repeatedly makes reference to Macao in a Preface only recently published. The longest reference is an eulogy of the territory: Macao, incontestably is a wonderful perch for all intellectuals determined to study what they observe and write about their impressions, eager to unravel to all foreigners the kaleidoscopic splendours of China.
Venceslau de Morais was one of a kind in a period of daring African explorations. Oliveira Martins' work has strong affinities with other literary work inspired by their contemporary African incursions. His amorous experiences were also recaptured in fascinating chapters. These two facets are essential ingredients of the psychological profile of Venceslau: Despite the rather sombre tones with which some Portuguese biographers depict Morais, the writer was in fact an extremely convivial person, a born lover and adventurer.
Further along, Armando Janeira presents the final perspective of the relationship between the writer and China: The short impressions he left us of China are testimonies of an unjust understanding of that great country and its extraordinary culture. His Chinese affections only superficially influencing the gross of his [literary] works. In effect, the 'Morasian' cult of exoticism was restricted to his appreciation of the empire of the Rising Sun.
It was from this world that he extracted the impressionist visions of "[ When he diversifies on religion, art, love and death, his thoughts are quite banal. His culture is rarefied and his philosophy is nil. When dealing with abstract concepts, his dialectic and even his prose are those of a journalist of a provincial periodical.
But when he describes women and their charms, people and their picturesque daily chores, the Japanese colour, light, sky and earth, then he reaches the heights of a great artist, excited and ennobled by the love of what he sees and feels. It is therefore not surprising that despite banal journalistic texts Venceslau came to achieve a prestige that still holds strong thanks to some remarkable pages and sublime passages.
It is true that, at the time, he knew how to make the most of fashion and novelty surrounding his literary themes as well exploit the curiosity of the Portuguese for all novelties, remote places and exotic locations. But the of value of men and the creative power of the writer firmly transpire from his heart. This organ gives warmth and animates the subject matter which excites it, throbs in its love for those people and in its weakness and fervour of surrender to the charms of Japanese women. Morais seeked the most untouched pockets of Western influence in demand for exoticism: I think that our preferences are justifiable.
Our civilization is gradually becoming degenerated by vulgarity, egoism, tediousness. I understand that the entrepreneurs, the industrialists and the politicians might prefer it that way for their own sake.
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But all those who do not belong to those 'classes' and live according to their sentiments, are certainly captivated by primitive civilizations which maintained at their core, ingenuity, kindness and picturesqueness, lost values in our contemporary society. But in Morais was writing differently, totally disillusioned by the Westernization of Asia.
Paisagens da China e do Japão
The example shocked him the most. He wrote with excruciating bitterness: The last popular disturbances are a clear proof of that. It is really sad to see how this beautiful country and this brave nation reject their ancestral civilization so full of charms to fall besoted by Western civilization! During the s, the time of his last remarks about Macao, Morais no longer was the blond and distinct gentleman of the Macao years. He had become the debilitated osoroshi who used to solitarily roam the squares and cemeteries of Tokushima, the sleepy metropolis of Shykoku.
An excruciating solitude and pungent sadness incessantly tormented the exiled man, the reader of the Goncourt and Loti, who once thought it possible to obliterate the banality of Western values in an illusion of a Far East whose glowing patina eclipsed an evanescent mirage. Additionally, a large part of the diaspora is a part of the already-counted population of the Portuguese-speaking countries and territories, such as the high number of Brazilian and PALOP emigrant citizens in Portugal or the high number of Portuguese emigrant citizens in the PALOP and Brazil.
The Portuguese language therefore serves more than million people daily, who have direct or indirect legal, juridical and social contact with it, varying from the only language used in any contact, to only education, contact with local or international administration, commerce and services or the simple sight of road signs, public information and advertising in Portuguese.
Portuguese is a mandatory subject in the school curriculum in Uruguay. Since , when Brazil signed into the economic community of Mercosul with other South American nations, namely Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, Portuguese is either mandatory, or taught, in the schools of those South American countries.
Although early in the 21st century, after Macau was returned to China and Brazilian immigration to Japan slowed down, the use of Portuguese was in decline in Asia, it is once again becoming a language of opportunity there, mostly because of increased diplomatic and financial ties with economically powerful Portuguese-speaking countries Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, etc. Riograndense and European Portuguese normally distinguishes formal from informal speech by verbal conjugation. Conjugation of verbs in tu has three different forms in Brazil verb "to see": tu viste? However, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the country's main cultural centre, the usage of tu has been expanding ever since the end of the 20th century,  being most frequent among youngsters, and a number of studies have also shown an increase in its use in a number of other Brazilian dialects.
Standard European Portuguese is also the preferred standard by the Portuguese-speaking African countries. As such, and despite the fact that its speakers are dispersed around the world, Portuguese has only two dialects used for learning: the European and the Brazilian. Some aspects and sounds found in many dialects of Brazil are exclusive to South America, and cannot be found in Europe.
See Portuguese in Africa. Audio samples of some dialects and accents of Portuguese are available below. IPA transcriptions refer to the names in local pronunciation. Differences between dialects are mostly of accent and vocabulary , but between the Brazilian dialects and other dialects, especially in their most colloquial forms, there can also be some grammatical differences. The Portuguese-based creoles spoken in various parts of Africa, Asia, and the Americas are independent languages.
Portuguese, like Catalan , preserved the stressed vowels of Vulgar Latin which became diphthongs in most other Romance languages; cf. Another characteristic of early Portuguese was the loss of intervocalic l and n , sometimes followed by the merger of the two surrounding vowels, or by the insertion of an epenthetic vowel between them: cf. When the elided consonant was n , it often nasalized the preceding vowel: cf.
This process was the source of most of the language's distinctive nasal diphthongs. The Portuguese language is the only Romance language that has preserved the clitic case mesoclisis : cf. Most of the lexicon of Portuguese is derived, directly or through other Romance languages, from Latin. Nevertheless, because of its original Lusitanian and Celtic Gallaecian heritage, and the later participation of Portugal in the Age of Discovery , it has a relevant number of words from the ancient Hispano-Celtic group  and adopted loanwords from other languages around the world.
A number of Portuguese words can still be traced to the pre-Roman inhabitants of Portugal , which included the Gallaeci , Lusitanians , Celtici and Cynetes. Most of these words derived from the Hispano-Celtic Gallaecian language of northwestern Iberia, and are very often shared with Galician since both languages share a common origin in the medieval language of Galician-Portuguese.
A few of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other Celtic sources, often Gaulish. Altogether these are over 2, words, some verbs and toponymic names of towns, rivers, utensils and plants. As they adopted the Roman civilization and language, however, these people contributed with some Germanic words to the lexicon. The Germanic languages influence also exists in toponymic surnames and patronymic surnames borne by Visigoth sovereigns and their descendants, and it dwells on placenames such as Ermesinde , Esposende and Resende where sinde and sende are derived from the Germanic sinths military expedition and in the case of Resende, the prefix re comes from Germanic reths 'council'.
Other examples of Portuguese names, surnames and town names of Germanic toponymic origin include Henrique, Henriques , Vermoim, Mandim, Calquim, Baguim, Gemunde, Guetim, Sermonde and many more, are quite common mainly in the old Suebi and later Visigothic dominated regions, covering today's Northern half of Portugal and Galicia. Between the 9th and early 13th centuries, Portuguese acquired some to words from Arabic by influence of Moorish Iberia. Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages.
Moraes, Wenceslau de 1854-1929
From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade , and the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese acquired several words of African and Amerind origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories. While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well. Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages, especially French and English.
These are by far the most important languages when referring to loanwords.
Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance languages , and it has special ties with the following members of this group:. Portuguese and other Romance languages namely French and Italian are moderately mutually intelligible, and share considerable similarities in both vocabulary and grammar. Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study before attaining strong comprehension in those Romance languages, and vice versa. However, Portuguese and Galician are mutually intelligible , and Spanish is asymmetrically comprehensible to Portuguese speakers.
Portunhol , a form of code-switching , has a more lively use and is more readily mentioned in popular culture in South America. Said code-switching is not to be confused with the portunhol spoken on the borders of Brazil with Uruguay dialeto do pampa and Paraguay dialeto dos brasiguaios , and of Portugal with Spain barranquenho , that are Portuguese dialects spoken natively by thousands of people, which have been heavily influenced by Spanish.
Portuguese and Spanish are the only Ibero-Romance languages, and perhaps the only Romance languages with such thriving inter-language forms, in which visible and lively bilingual contact dialects and code-switching have formed, in which functional bilingual communication is achieved through attempting an approximation to the target foreign language known as 'Portunhol' without a learned acquisition process, but nevertheless facilitates communication.
There is an emerging literature focused on such phenomena including informal attempts of standardization of the linguistic continua and their usage. The closest relative of Portuguese is Galician, which is spoken in the autonomous community region and historical nationality of Galicia northwestern Spain. The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese , but they have diverged especially in pronunciation and vocabulary due to the political separation of Portugal from Galicia. It is "considered a rarity, a living vestige of the medieval language that ranged from Cantabria to Mondego [ In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect.